Note: Quantile classification of two density axis (population and employment). Four population (P1 to P4) and employment (E1 to E4) classes. N = number of statistical units. D = divergence Index (deviation from uniform distribution). Source: adapted from Rodrigue, J-P, L. Dablanc and G. Giuliano (2017) “The Freight Landscape: Convergence and Divergence in Urban Freight Distribution“, Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 557-572.
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Paris is characterized by a very high level of convergence (low deviation; D=0.3) implying a close correlation between population and employment densities. As such, the monocentric city has a concentric-like distribution of densities, implying a rather uniform freight landscape in terms of its operational constraints. This is particularly the case for the central area characterized by a continuous presence of P4/E4 densities. This represents a coherent zone for the application of city logistics strategies servicing an array of commercial, retail, and personal consumption freight demands. Still, this is also reflective of multiple freight distribution systems operating within the same area.