Note: Quantile classification of two density axis (population and employment). Four population (P1 to P4) and employment (E1 to E4) classes. N = number of statistical units. D = divergence Index (deviation from uniform distribution). Source: adapted from Rodrigue, J-P, L. Dablanc and G. Giuliano (2017) “The Freight Landscape: Convergence and Divergence in Urban Freight Distribution“, Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 557-572.
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Los Angeles has a high level of divergence between population and employment densities (D=0.73; high deviation), which reflects its polycentric character with more specialized land uses. As such, comprehensive city logistics strategies are less prevalent because of geographical and functional variations in densities.