Source: Dablanc, L. and J-P Rodrigue (2017) “The Geography of Urban Freight”, in G. Giuliano and S. Hanson (eds) The Geography of Urban Transportation, 4th Edition, New York: The Guilfold Press. pp. 34-56.
Four general models of urban logistics can be identified: (MD) large metropolitan areas in developed and (ME) developing countries; (GD and GE) gateway cities (that can also be major metropolitan areas) providing a substantial interface function between national and global freight distribution. A fifth (MM), involves an array of medium-sized cities in developed economies, particularly in Europe, that have implemented city logistics schemes to deal with specific challenges.